Showing posts from 2007

Speed measuring script for Ericsson W25

Earlier I had speed problems with my unit and I wanted to make sure if it is only perception or if it is a real speed problem.
The concept what I have implemented was, that the unit should make a test every 15 minutes to check the download speed of the cellular connection. Then the result with some other relevant information is added to a file stored on the external USB flash drive.

So here is the script:
wget -q -O /dev/null & wget -q -O /dev/null & wget -q -O /dev/null & sleep 3; bejovo=`cat /proc/net/dev |grep ppp0 |cut -d":" -f2 |awk '{print$1}'`; sleep 5; bejovo1=`cat /proc/net/dev |grep ppp0|cut -d":" -f2 |awk '{print$1}'`; kill `pidof wget` echo `date '+%Y.%m.%d %H:%M'` `echo $bejovo $bejovo1 |awk '{print (($2-$1))/640}'` kbps `msctl rscp` `msctl ecio` `mctl issue at*cn…

The internals of a firmware package for Ericsson W25

By analysing the /bin/swinst script it become clear, that the firmware package is a simple tar file, containing the software components to be upgraded. Usually it contains the following elements:

metainfo - detailed information and MD5 summs of the components to be installed - script to be executed before installing - script to be executed after installation
zImage - linux kernel
rootfs.squahfs - root file system
wanbl - wan module boatloader
wanfw - wan module firmware
The swinst script is quite complex, but basicly it download the firmware form the internet to the TMP directory, checks the checksums, checks the SW versions and if the upgrade is needed, the upgrades first the main firmware, then the WAN bootloader and then the WAN firmware. When installing the main firmware it increases the number used by RedBoot boot loader, this way it is garanteed, that on restart the new version will boot. On the other hand, if the installation is interrupted, the old Sw will…

Ericsson W25 time syncronization

Using the default ip network based time sycronization has two disadvantages:

As you can not set time zones your device will run always on GMT
In the current SW version the ntp daemon is crasing after some days so you will loose syncronization
You can change it to cellular based syncronization with the following commands on the command line interface:
# cf set sntp.enabled false
# cf set cellular.celltime true
# cf commit
This will use your local time and will run forever.I have implemeted this 2 days ago, but it turned out that you can use this only if you have good enough coverage, othervise you will not get the time from the cellular network. So I swicthed back to the ip network based syncronization and I will write a script to periodically restart the time syncronization process.

Ericsson W25 running binary files from other sources

I have spent some hours trying to find a propper source to get prebuilt binary files to be executed on the Ericsson W25 without sucess.

I could figure out that I need "armeb" type files and I have found them in the Debian ARM packages and in OpenWRT kamikaze version, but none of them was usefull as the debian used a different version of the main c libraries and OpenWRT uses uLibC.

If anyone know more sources of ready made binaries, please let me know.

Ericsson W25 Dynamic DNS

Dynamic DNS is a technology used to have a permanent address even if your ip address is changing all the time. To do this you have to register at one of the Dynamic DNS providers (I have used, select a nice web address for yoursef (e.g. update your ip address and access your computer on this new address (

The update of your ip address can be done automatically by this simple script. The script checks your IP address and if it is changed it simply request the https page defined for updating your ip address. You can find this address for other DynDNS providers in their developer documentation. When requesting the update, you even don't have to include your IP address as the server will see it from the request.

IP=`ifconfig ppp0 |grep "inet addr" |awk '{print $2}' |awk -F: '{print $2}'`;
if [ ! -e /var/tmp/oldip ] ; then
OLDIP=`cat /var/tmp/oldip`;
if [ $IP = $OLDIP ] ; then

Starting your own init script in Ericsson W25

Update: In the SW version 1.3 you can simply put your init scripts to /rw/etc/init.d/rc.local and do not need this complicated method.

If we want our extra changes remain after restarting the Ericsson W25 we need to reapply them after restarting the router again. Normally this is done by a custom init script which makes the necessary changes for us.

In the W25 we need to do some special tricks to be able to start our own script as most of the /etc directory and the complete /etc/init.d is in a read only filesystem. However we are clever guys and we notice that the /etc/ppp/peers directory is in the rw filesystem and we know that for the pppd we can give a dialer program as a parameter. Let's use this for starting our own init script, when the unit first tries to connect to the 3G network.

We have to change the following line in /etc/ppp/peers/3g:

connect "/usr/sbin/chat -V -f /etc/ppp/chat/3g-connect"

to the following:

connect "/root/lchat -V -f /etc/ppp/chat/3g-connect&…

Software of the Ericsson W25

The Ericsson W25 is running an embebbed linux.

When you power on your device first the bootloader is started. The bootloader is responsible for loading in the complete operating system and start it up. In the Ericsson W25 there is a RedBoot bootloader, which has plenty of features. It is capable of booting from network, from serial devices, it has a telnet interface etc., but in our case it just selects the propper linux kernel and the propper root file system and starts up the linux operating system.

All the software to be loaded is stored in the built in ROM, in 9 partitons:

0x00000000-0x00080000 : "RedBoot"
0x00080000-0x001c0000 : "kernel_A"
0x001c0000-0x007a0000 : "rootfs_A"
0x007a0000-0x008e0000 : "kernel_B"
0x008e0000-0x00ec0000 : "rootfs_B"
0x00ec0000-0x00fa0000 : "rwfs"
0x00fa0000-0x00fe0000 : "test"
0x00fe0000-0x00fff000 : "FIS directory"
0x00fff000-0x01000000 : "RedBoot config"

As you can see the f…

Hardware of the Ericsson W25

Before looking at the hardware of the Ericsson W25, I would like to emphasize once more the importance of changing your passwords in the router. This morning I found very nice traces of an attack against my router in the logs:

Oct 30 08:31:37 (none) auth.err sshd[9534]: error: Could not get shadow information for root
Oct 30 08:31:37 (none) sshd[9534]: Failed password for root from port 60418 ssh2
Oct 30 08:31:41 (none) sshd[9536]: Illegal user andrew from
Oct 30 08:31:41 (none) auth.err sshd[9536]: error: Could not get shadow information for NOUSER
Oct 30 08:31:41 (none) sshd[9536]: Failed password for illegal user andrew from port 60649 ssh2

and this went on for 900 more lines. Apparently someone was trying to log into my router by trying out username/password pairs. The original Ericsson password for root is so easy, that probably the attacker would have succeeded.

But, now lets turn to the HW:

It is based on the Intel…

Accessing the command line interface of the Ericsson W25

The first step if you want more from your Ericsson W25 is to gain access to its command line interface. The command line interface (CLI in the future) can be accessed over the network either by telnet or ssh protocol. Telnet is available only from within your local network, and for accessing it you can use the telnet command built into Windows: telnet
The ssh access is available both from the internal network and from the internet and you should use an ssh client like PuTTY to access it.

There are two user names available for the CLI: root and operator. You can find their default password in the document about SW upgrade on
Once you have logged in, you find yourself in a linux environment. Linux commands like ls, pwd, mount etc. will work.

There are two specific commands for the router: cf and st.

The cf command is used to set and retrieve the parameters of the router. When called without parameters it gives a help about the available commands. Th…

Ericsson W25 Fixed Wireless Router Introduction

A fixed wireless router means a device which is connected to the internet using a mobile network and it distributes the internet access for a home/small office network using wired and/or wireless LAN. The reason for using this kind of devices is either because where you live/work you do not have a fixed internet or simply because the price for a mobile internet can be lower than for a fixed one.

The Ericsson W25 is a GSM/UMTS/HSDPA one, it can be used on GSM or UMTS networks. The theoretical maximal donwload speed is, 7.2 Mbit/sec with HSDPA, but today only very few carriers support this and even if it is supperted you can not reach this speed. The network which I am using supports only 1,8 Mbit/sec where I live and even with this theoretical possibility I can not reach higher speed than 1,4 Mbit/sec. However this speed is almost 3 times higher than my previous internet connection which was an outdoor WLAN based 512 k connection.

Beside the internet access this device has the possibilit…

What is networking at home about?

Altough networking is used more when people are getting connected, in my case this is about computer networks at home. What you can expect here are some rather technical articles about what I have done or what I wanted to do in my home LAN.

The first blogs will be about the Ericsson W25 router which is a mobile network to WLAN router.